In ancient times of the master established a felling on big stones. And intervals between them were carefully filled with small stones, crushed stone, covered with usual clay which very well isolated fell or basement the room from cold and wind.
There are several views of the base:
- Base tape small-zaglubleny
- Tape base of a deep zalozheniye
- Column base
- The base on piles
The most optimal variant for fellings and houses from a bar. Depth of a zalozheniye of the base of 50 - 70 cm. This view of the base can be used for wooden structures, and also small stone houses provided that this foundation is laid on a weak puchinistykh soil, or warming of a blanket of soil around the base, for the purpose of reduction of depth of frost penetration is provided.
Calculation and design of the base always has to be carried out, proceeding from a set of factors and, of course, considering natural and climatic conditions. First of all, at design of the base under the house it is necessary to pay attention to a land relief and character of its soil.
In the case described earlier when in Ancient Russia wooden houses were put practically on the earth, without specially made base, soil had to be stony (rocky or hryashchevaty). Only then the house was not exposed to any natural counteracting powers and was "reliably fixed".
But in Russia practically all territory is covered with sandy, loamy and clay soil. They pass water which at subzero temperatures in winter time freezes. There is an effect of "swelling", the base is affected by forces of a frosty pucheniye.
It is observed when ground waters are higher, than frost penetration depth on a base site. As a result quite unpleasant consequences turn out: in the winter when water freezes and turns into ice, the house rises, and in the spring when ice thaws, the base is released. There is this process unevenly, in a consequence of what there is a house design distortion, cracks in the base, an ineobkhodimost of its restoration appear.
Order construction of the base only from experts. The economy of money at the first stage of construction can have pernicious effect on a structure further.
* Depth of a zalozheniye of all tape of 0,6 m, a socle of 40 cm, width of a tape is 40 cm.
Other base, excellent suitable for installation on its fellings of houses - the pile base.
The base on piles - ideal option for private building. Its cost in difference from other views of the base can be up to 70% lower.
Construction of the pile base process rather simple, but at the same time demands a certain preparation and predesigns. So, it is necessary to know loading which the base has to maintain. Proceeding from weight of future design the quantity of piles and their diameter pays off. The distance between them which is also strictly considered, respectively, depends on quantity of piles.
The pile base can be established on any type of soil. But the large role when calculating will be played by type of soil and depth of its frost penetration. Standard soil - clay, loam, sandy loam, sand, will demand deepening the to 1,8 m. In case soil the peat bog, then a pile becomes more long on height of a peat layer.
Piles have to be established by professional masters, the base - a basis of future house.
First of all the place is prepared: escapes small priyamok, up to 30 cm in depth, in it the blade is located and the direction of screwing is set. To soil the pile is brought clockwise on necessary depth. It is worth remembering that depth cannot be less than 1,5 m. After screwing up of all piles they are cut off on the established level. The cavity of a pile is filled in with solution of cement and sand to the level of undercutting. It allows to avoid metal corrosion further. In end each pile it is put on ogolovka - a peculiar platform with a diameter more, than diameter of a pile.
As it was told above, the pile base - one of the most economic views of the base. At the same time the term of installation of the base under a felling makes only 1 day. It is surprising that at installation of piles perhaps both a mechanical, and manual vvinchivaniye as the pile rather easily and without loading enters the earth.
The pile base - one of those few views of the base. Available to installation on complex soil, including boggy.
Service life of screw piles, on condition of observance of technology of works, can reach till 100 years.
The pile base can also be established without resorting to change of a land relief and without carrying out earthwork.
It is possible to build the pile base at all seasons of the year without any weather restrictions.
Screw piles possess a large supply of counteraction to forces of a frosty pucheniye that guarantees impossibility of a distortion of the building after annual seasonal thawing of the soil.
Screw piles are capable to take out big loadings: reserved them the bearing ability to 18 tons.
The base on screw piles gives the chance to distribute the bearing loadings and to provide the uniform bearing ability at diverse soil.
Screw piles are established as the base even of river moorings and piers.
They are reliable and safe. To already available structure with the base from screw piles it is always possible to attach additional constructions.
Construction of any construction always begins with the base. It is one of the most important elements of the house.
The view of the base is defined depending on property of soil and size of loads of the base.
Prices of installation of the base.
|The size on perimeter||Tape||Cost of works (lent.fund)||Column||On piles|
|With the fifth wall|