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Diesel fuel

Diesel fuel

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Technical characteristics
  • Brand"ТК "ГНП-ЦЕНТР"
  • Country of manufactureRussia
Description
diesel fuel  

Diesel fuel (obsolete Tanning razg diesel, diesel fuel..) - liquid product, used as fuel in a diesel internal combustion engine. Generally, this term is referred fuels obtained from kerosene-gas oil fractions direct petroleum distillation.


The name comes from the diesel fuel it. Solaröl (sunflower oil) - as early as 1857 year called heavier fraction formed in the distillation of petroleum. Faction named for the yellowish color.

Application.

The main consumers of diesel fuel - rail transport, freight transport, water transport, military equipment, agricultural machinery, as well as, more recently, the diesel passenger vehicles. Furthermore diesel engines, residual fuel oil (diesel oil) is often used as a boiler fuel for impregnating leathers, in cooling lubricants and quenching fluids, in mechanical and heat treatment of metals.

Main characteristics of the fuel.

Distinguish distillate low viscosity - for high-speed and high viscosity, the residual, for slow (tractor, ship, and other stationary.) Engines. The distillate consists of a hydrotreated kerosene-gas oil fractions and a straight distillation to 1/5 of the catalytic cracking of gas oils and coker. Viscous oil for low speed engines with the fuel oil is a mixture of kerosene-gas oil fractions. The heat of combustion of diesel fuel averages 42624 kJ / kg (10,180 kcal / kg).

Viscosity and water content.

Distinguish the so-called winter and summer diesel fuel. The main difference in the filterability limit temperature ASTM D 6371 and a cloud point and pour point ASTM D97, ASTM D2500, specified in this fuel standards. winter fuel production more expensive, but without preheating the fuel saving can not be used at -10 ° C, for example. Another problem is the high water content in diesel fuel. Water exfoliate during storage of diesel fuel and is collected at the bottom, because the density of diesel fuel of less than 1 kg / l. Slug in the pipeline completely blocking the operation of the engine. interstate standard requirements of GOST 305-82 "Diesel fuel. Specifications "regulate a kinematic viscosity at 20 ° C for summer varieties within 3.0 ÷ 6.0 cSt, for winter varieties 1.8 ÷ 5.0 cSt for arctic 1,5 ÷ 4 0 cSt. This standard also requires the absence of water in all fuel grades.

Flammability.

The main indicator of diesel fuel - a cetane number (L-45). Cetane number characterizes the ability to ignite fuel in a combustion chamber and is equal to the volume fraction of cetane in the mixture with α-methylnaphthalene, which under standard conditions ASTM D613 has the same flammability compared with a test fuel. Flash point defined by ASTM D93, diesel fuel must not be higher than 70 ° C. The temperature of distillation, defined by ASTM D86, diesel fuel must not be below 200 and above 350 ° C.

The sulfur content.

In recent years in the fight for the environment strictly rationed the sulfur content in diesel fuel. By sulfur is meant sulfur compounds content - mercaptans (R-SH), sulfides (RSR), disulfides (RSSR), thiophenes, tiofanov etc., not elemental sulfur as such;. R - hydrocarbon radical. The sulfur content in the oil is in the range from 0.15% (light oil Siberia), 1.5% (oil Urals) 5-7% (heavy tar oil); limit in some residual fuels - up to 3%, marine fuel - up to 1%, and the latest standards in Europe and California allowable sulfur content of diesel fuel of not more than 0.001% (10 ppm). Lowering the sulfur content of diesel fuel, as a rule, leads to a reduction of its lubricating properties, so DT ultra low sulfur prerequisite is the presence of additives.
Serial number according to the system adopted by the UN: 1202 Class - 3.

Physical properties.

Summer diesel fuel: Density: not more than 860 kg / m³. Flash point: 62 ° C. Pour point: -5 ° C. It is obtained by mixing virgin, recycled, and hydrotreated origin of hydrocarbon fractions with boiling temperature of 180-360 degrees Celsius. end boiling temperature rise leads to increased coking of nozzles and opacity.


Winter diesel fuel:  Density: not more than 840 kg / m³. Flash point: 40 ° C. Pour point: -35 ° C. It is obtained by mixing virgin, recycled, and hydrotreated origin of hydrocarbon fractions with boiling temperature of 180-340 ° C. Just winter diesel fuel is obtained from the addition of diesel fuel pour point depressant, which reduces the pour point temperature of the fuel, but has little influence on the temperature limit of filterability. Artisanal saving in diesel fuel was added to 20% TS-1 or CO kerosene, the performance properties are not substantially changed.


Arctic diesel fuel:  Density: not more than 830 kg / m³. Flash point: 35 ° C. Pour point: -50 ° C. It is obtained by mixing virgin, recycled, and hydrotreated origin of hydrocarbon fractions with boiling temperature of 180-330 degrees Celsius. Limits arctic fuels boiling limits correspond to about a boiling kerosene fractions, therefore, this fuel - in fact weighted kerosene. However, pure kerosene has low cetane number of 35-40 and insufficient lubricating property (wear strong pump). To eliminate these problems in arctic fuels and additives added tsetanopovyshayuschie mineral motor oil to improve lubricity. A more expensive method of producing arctic diesel oil - dewaxing of diesel fuel.

A source:  Топливо дизельное (tkgnp-centre.ru/catalog/nefteproduktyi/toplivo_dizelnoe/)

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